Detail from British Library MS Royal 12 E XXV fol. 94

Online Links for METh 41 (2019)

N.b. some of these links have changed since this volume went to press, and some have been added. We also give references to some books which have been made more accessible online than they are in some libraries.

Link to image     Link to video     Link to resource




Chambers and Jacovac


Dutton and Mills

Common Abbreviations

P ix

Common Abbreviations:

A Dictionary of Medieval Latin from British Sources edited R.E. Latham, D.R. Howlett, and R.K. Ashdowne (British Academy: Oxford, 1975-2013): available via subscribing libraries, or at (search by headword).

Middle English Dictionary: online version - 2001, the Regents of the University of Michigan available via subscribing libraries.

Oxford English Dictionary: online version - 2018 Oxford University Press available via subscribing libraries.


P 1

Edward’s Boys website:

P 3
FN 1

Louise Hampson ‘“Casting a dim religious light”; the stained and painted glass of York Minster, c.1450-1802’, 2 vols (PhD thesis. University of York, 2016):

Meg Twycross:
‘The Sun in York (Part Two)’

P 4
FN 1

HM Nautical Almanac Office:;

P 5
FN 1 contd

Sun-graphs for York: Go to 'Sun Position' and enter the coordinates Latitude: N 53°57ʹ43.41ʺ, Longitude: W 1°5ʹ1.51ʺ for York: This has a clickable map, but the choice of dates only goes back to 1900:

P 5
FN 2

Meg Twycross ‘Forget the 4.30 a.m. start: recovering a palimpsest in the York Ordo paginarumMETh 25 (2003) 98–152:

P 8
FN 14

Definitions of clocca/cloca in DMLBS.

PP 14–15
FN 33

Website of the Bruges St Joris Guild of Crossbowmen:      

P 20
Fig. 1

Summer Solstice in York (colour):
solstice_rose.jpg © Meg Twycross     

P 23
Fig. 3

York from Braun and Hogenberg (1617), detail, colour:
Georg Braun and Franz Hogenberg Civitates Orbis Terrarum Volume 6 (1617). © Meg Twycross     

P 27

Scale model (1:12) of Transfiguration waggon set (with cut-out audience); full-on but hazy sun:
Colour photo of Transfiguration waggon in a mock-up of a fifteenth-century York street, using some existing buildings from the station halfway down Petergate and elsewhere. Daylight. © Meg Twycross

P 28
Fig. 6

Transfiguration model in full sun:
Colour photo © Meg Twycross.     

P 29
Fig. 7

Transfiguration model side-lit, with sun-reflecting ‘spotlight’ (aimed rather low).
Colour photo © Meg Twycross.

P 42
Fig. 18

1992 Resurrection in Stonegate, sun directly behind the waggon.
Colour image © Eileen White      

P 43
Fig. 19

1988 Doomsday Waggon in High Petergate, sun setting behind it:
Colour image © Meg Twycross.

P 45
FN 62

Alexandra F. Johnston ‘York pageant house: new evidence’ REED Newsletter 7:2 (1982) 24–5.; go to PDF.

E. Lucy Deacon:
‘Remembering through Re-enacting: Revisiting the Emergence of the Iranian Ta˓zia Tradition’

Besides the URLS given in the notes, we have provided links to some of the featured accounts by early travellers, which readers may like to explore further. Several are illustrated.

P 58
FN 1

Encyclopædia Iranica:
Article on Ta˓zia


P 61

Performer playing Imam Hosayn, Baraghan, Alborz Province, Iran (10th Muharram, AH 1439/AD 2017):
Colour Image © E. Lucy Deacon.

P 62
FN 10

Lewis Pelly The Miracle Play of Hasan and Husain 2 vols (London: Allen, 1879):


P 65

Ta˓zia of The Martyrdom of ˓Ali Akbar, Armaghankhana, Zanjan Province (8th Muharram, AH 1439/AD 2017):
Colour Image © E. Lucy Deacon.

P 66
FN 20

Short section of a scene from The Martyrdom of ˓Abbas, performed in Qudejan, Isfahan province, in AH 1440 (AD 2018): Aparat video, uploaded by Tannin-e ta‘zia-ye Gudejan in April 2019.
N.b. this is not the same reference as in the printed article: that video had problems downloading. This one has a short advert before it begins.

P 68
FN 28

Jean Struys Les voyages de Jean Struys, en Moscovie, en Tartarie, en Perse, aux Indes,& en plusieurs autres Païs Étrangers translated from Dutch, 3 vols (Lyon: Rey & Plaignard, 1682) 2 203–207:
1682 Lyons edition; scroll down to pages 303-307.


P 68
FN 29

Jean Chardin Voyages du chevalier Chardin en Perse, et autres lieux de l’Orient 10 vols (Paris: Le Normant, 1811) 9 52–3: 2 203–207:
pages 48–67, on the festival.


P 70
FN 34

Cornelis de Bruin Voyages de Corneille Le Brun par la Moscovie, en Perse, et aux Indes Orientales 2 vols (Amsterdam: Frères Wetstein, 1718) 1 219–20: 2 203–207:
pages 217-221, on the festival.


P 72
FN 40

William Ouseley Travels in Various Countries of the East: More Particularly Persia 3 vols (London: Rodwell and Martin, 1823) 3 163–70:
pages 162–170, on the festival.


P 72
FN 41

Willliam Francklin Observations made on a tour from Bengal to Persia, in the years 1786-7 (London: Cadell, 1790) 246–254:
cover: scroll to page 246.


P 75

‘The Foreign Ambassador’ in Bazar-e Sham (‘The Damascus Market’), Garmasa, Isfahan Province (13th Muharram, AH 1439/AD 2017):
Colour Image © E. Lucy Deacon.

P 78
FN 53

(1)    Performance, Ashura of 1441/2019 in the village of Mir Shams ol-Din in Mazandaran:
Aparat video (15 minutes), uploaded by Namayesh-e rawza-ye tasviri (ta˓zia) on 15 September 2019. Action runs from ˓Abbas˔ losing his hands and being martyred whilst trying to bring water from the Euphrates for Hosayn’s daughter Sakina, through to Hosayn’s last battle and his beheading by Shemr. Then follows the mourning of the women, raiding of the camp, parading of the captives, and burning of tents.

(2)    Performance at the village of Shahrui in Khuzestan (date unknown):
Aparat video (3 minutes), uploaded by Vahidtaknakhl64 on 3 September 2019. Features similar scenes with the addition of the martyrdom of Hosayn’s infant son ˓Ali Asghar. A higher level of production is apparent.

N.b. Each clip may be preceded by an advertisement. The viewer can skip this after a few seconds by clicking on the rectangle in the bottom righthand corner of the video pane (above the full screen icon), which, after a countdown of a few seconds, will display the words (‘skip advertisement’).
You may have to click the PLAY button again.

P 79
FN 56

Jean-Baptiste Tavernier Les Six Voyages de Jean-Baptiste Tavernier, en Turquie, en Perse, et aux Indes (Paris: Gervais Clouzier and Georges Barbin, 1676) 1 429:

P 79
FN 56

Antonio de Gouvea [sic] Relations des grandes guerres et victoires obtenues par le roy de Perse Cha Abbas contre les empereurs de Turkvie Mahomet et Achmet Son Fils ... Traduit de l’original Portugais (Rouen: Nicholas Loyselet, 1646) 75–6:

Mark Chambers and Gašper Jakovac:
‘Welcoming James VI and I in the North-East’

P 84
FN 3

Records of Early English Drama North-East:

P 88
FN 17

ODNB ‘Margaret [Margaret Tudor] (1489–1541), Queen of Scots, consort of James IV’: biography of Margaret Tudor .

P 94
FN 37

Lincoln Archaeological Research Assessment Project, Townscape Heritage Initiative:

P 101
FN 53

‘The city of Durham: Introduction (3 of 3)’ Victoria County History:

P 102
FN 55

ODNB ‘Richard Neile (1562–1640), Archbishop of York’: Biography of Bishop Richard Neile.

P 125
FN 141

REED North-East Pre-Publication material: Doncaster, 1457–1642 edited C.E. McGee:
N.b. this URL reference has changed since publication of METh 41.

Ernst Gerhardt:
‘Salmon-Fishing and Beer-Brewing: The Waterleaders and Drawers of Dee and Chester’s Corpus Christi and Whitsun Plays’

P 134
FN 1

REED: Cheshire including Chester edited Elizabeth Baldwin, Lawrence M. Clopper, and David Mills (London and Toronto: The British Library and University of Toronto Press, 2007) 82: whole volume.

P 134
FN 4

J.S. Barrow and others ‘Economic Infrastructure and Institutions: Craft Guilds’ in Victoria County History: County of Chester London: Boydell & Brewer for the Institute of Historical Research, 2005):

P 135
FN 6

Randle Holme III The Academy of Armory (Chester: printed for the Author, 1688):; transcription of printed edition by the Text Creation Partnership in association with EEBO. Facsimile available in EEBO, available in subscribing libraries.

P 140
FN 15

The Rolls of the Freemen of the City of Chester: Part I, 1392–1700 edited J.H.E. Bennet Record Society of Lancashire and Cheshire 51 (1906) 3:

P 141
FN 16

DMLB sv Piscator:

P 141
FN 17

Alexandra F. Johnston ‘“Pleyes of Myracles”’ English: Journal of the English Association 64:244 (2015) 5–26:

P 146
FN 39

Maryanne Kowaleski Peasants and the Sea in Medieval England:

P 147
FN 43

William Ayrton The Adventures of a Salmon in the River Dee (London: William Pickering; Chester: George Prichard, 1853) 22:

P 149
FN 53

Chester Apprenticeship Registers February 1692/3:; George Finlow.

P 149
FN 56

Chester Apprenticeship Registers 1561–1565:;
Peter Tonge, shoemaker.

Chester Apprenticeship Registers 1557–1562:;
apprenticeship of William Crosse.

P 150
FN 58

Chester Quarter Sessions Files:;
#31: 7 September 1597, Ellen Meols of Chester, spinster, vs Richard Meols of Chester, fishmonger.

P 151
FN 65

‘Topography 900–1914: Later Medieval, 1230–1550’ in VCH County of Chester: Volume 5 Part 1 (Woodbridge: Boydell & Brewer, 2003) 206–9:; riverside property and buildings belonging to fishermen.

P 151
FN 67

Chester Apprenticeship Registers 1558:;
10 December 1558: Ralph Tonge, apprenticed to his father Peter Tonge, shoemaker, for 7 years, to learn the art of a fishmonger. Void.

Chester Apprenticeship Registers 1558:;
10 December 1558: Ralph Tonge, apprenticed to Peter Tonge, of the City of Chester, fishmonger.

P 158
FN 89

‘Mayors and Sheriffs of Chester’ in VCH County of Chester: Volume 5 Part 2 (Woodbridge: Boydell & Brewer, 2005) 206–9:

Chester Archives: Cheshire Wills Database 1492–1940:;
this is a service intended for those who want to buy copies of wills and inventories, but gives basic information about holdings if you fill in the boxes.

P 161
FN 97

John S. Lee ‘Piped Water Supplies Managed by Civic Bodies in Medieval English Towns’ Urban History 41:3 (August 2014) 369–93 at 382:

P 161
FN 99

Derek Keene ‘Issues of Water in Medieval London to c.1300’ Urban History 28:2 (August 2001) 161–79 at 178:

Philip Butterworth :
‘Jetties, Pentices, Purprestures, and Ordure: Obstacles to Pageants and Processions in London’

P 178
FN 35

City of London Cheapside & Guildhall Area Enhancement Strategy (May 2015) 11–12:
bell-ringing as signal.

Elisabeth Dutton and Perry Mills:
‘Staging John Redford’s Wit and Science in 2019’

P 191
FN 1

John Redford The Play of Wit and Science edited Ben Byram-Wigfield (2004):

P 196
Fig. 1

L to R, Diligence (Yiannis Vogiaridis), Wit (Felix Kerrison-Adams), Instruction (Nilay Sah):
Colour photo © Nick Browning.

P 198
Fig. 2

The Giant Tediousness (Jack Hawkins) awakes. Genova, Palazzo Ducale:
Colour photo © Garrett Epp.

P 206
Fig. 3

Wit (Felix Kerrison-Adams) befooled, with the Glass of Reason:
Colour photo © Nick Browning.

P 206
Fig. 3

For more colour photographs of the production, including ones of the female characters, see: scroll down to bottom of page.

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